Figure 7. Cardamonin induces apoptosis through NF-κB and mTOR pathways in SKOV3 and PDC. (A, B, E) Representative images showing apoptosis detected with Annexin V-FITC and PI staining in SKOV3 and PDC after treatment of cardamonin (15 μM), PS-341 (50 nM) or Z-VAD-FMK(20 μM). The percentages in the bottom right quadrant and top right quadrant represent early and late apoptosis, respectively. (C, D) Western blot showing change of protein expression of Mcl-1, Bax, Bcl-2, cytochrome C, caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-3. β-actin was included as a loading control.