Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 24 pp 25805—25818

MRI-visible perivascular spaces are associated with cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in Parkinson’s disease

Figure 2. Association between EPVS and clinical outcomes. (A) Baseline MDS-UPDRS III score separated by BG-EPVS grades. (B) Kaplan–Meier estimation of time to transit from baseline H&Y grade 1 to grade 2 between low-grade and high-grade BG-EPVS groups. Patients with low-grade BG-EPVS had increased risk of H&Y stage progression (HR: 0.637, 95% CI: 0.411-0.986, P=0.033) compared to patients with high-grade BG-EPVS. (C-E) Baseline normative UPSIT score (C), BJLOT score (D), and SDM score (E) separated by EPVS grades in BG (C, E) and CSO (D). Note that there were no significant time*EPVS interaction effects, significance on figures are calculated from multivariate regression using baseline data. For result of repeated measure linear mixed model, please refer to table 2. Lines represent mean ± SEM. UPSIT: University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification. Test BJLOT: Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test SDM: Symbol Digit Modality Test.