Figure 1. Impact of diet-induced metabolic dysregulation on survival. Excess dietary sugar leads to the dysregulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, resulting in conditions such as obesity, insulin resistance, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. High-sugar diets also fuel purine catabolism, promoting the accumulation of uric acid as an end-product. Besides causing direct pathologies such as kidney stones, hyperuricemia (i.e. elevated uric acid levels) is associated with metabolic diseases and predictive of their onset. However, the underlying mechanisms and impact on survival are complex and remain to be fully elucidated.