Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 1 pp 694—713

Activation of adenosine A3 receptor reduces early brain injury by alleviating neuroinflammation after subarachnoid hemorrhage in elderly rats

Time courses of the neurological scores, phenotypic characteristics of microglia and expression of adenosine A3 receptor after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). (A) Representative images showing blood clots deposited around the circle of Willis and schematic representations of the areas for analysis. (B) The modified Garcia score was significantly reduced after SAH, with the lowest point at 24 h. (C) Western blot analysis showing the protein expression levels of nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), arginase-1 (Arg-1), and adenosine A3 receptor (A3R) at 24 h, 3 days, and 7 days after SAH. (D) Immunofluorescence staining showing the expression of iNOS and Arg-1 in the cerebral cortex. iNOS- and Arg-1-positive cells were analyzed quantitatively. (E) A3R staining was observed in the cerebral cortex at 24h after SAH. F4/80 and NeuN was respectively used as a microglia and neurons marker. The relative gray value of A3R were quantified. n=5 in each group. Data are shown as the mean ± SD. *p p

Figure 1. Time courses of the neurological scores, phenotypic characteristics of microglia and expression of adenosine A3 receptor after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). (A) Representative images showing blood clots deposited around the circle of Willis and schematic representations of the areas for analysis. (B) The modified Garcia score was significantly reduced after SAH, with the lowest point at 24 h. (C) Western blot analysis showing the protein expression levels of nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), arginase-1 (Arg-1), and adenosine A3 receptor (A3R) at 24 h, 3 days, and 7 days after SAH. (D) Immunofluorescence staining showing the expression of iNOS and Arg-1 in the cerebral cortex. iNOS- and Arg-1-positive cells were analyzed quantitatively. (E) A3R staining was observed in the cerebral cortex at 24h after SAH. F4/80 and NeuN was respectively used as a microglia and neurons marker. The relative gray value of A3R were quantified. n=5 in each group. Data are shown as the mean ± SD. *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.01 versus sham group.