Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 1 pp 694—713

Activation of adenosine A3 receptor reduces early brain injury by alleviating neuroinflammation after subarachnoid hemorrhage in elderly rats

A3R agonist CI-IB-MECA promotes microglia towards to the M(IL-4) phenotype in rat 24 h after SAH. (A) Western blot analysis showing the expression of iNOS and Arg-1 after injection of CI-IB-MECA with or without MRS1523 24 h after SAH. A3R protein expression increased 24 h after SAH and was further increased after CI-IB-MECA treatment, which was partially reversed by the A3R antagonist MRS1523. (B) Immunofluorescence staining showing the M(LPS)-associated marker iNOS or the M(IL-4)-associated marker Arg-1 in the cerebral cortex 24 h after SAH. Both M(LPS) and M(IL-4) microglia were quantified. n=5 in each group. Values are shown as the mean ± SD. **p p p p p

Figure 3. A3R agonist CI-IB-MECA promotes microglia towards to the M(IL-4) phenotype in rat 24 h after SAH. (A) Western blot analysis showing the expression of iNOS and Arg-1 after injection of CI-IB-MECA with or without MRS1523 24 h after SAH. A3R protein expression increased 24 h after SAH and was further increased after CI-IB-MECA treatment, which was partially reversed by the A3R antagonist MRS1523. (B) Immunofluorescence staining showing the M(LPS)-associated marker iNOS or the M(IL-4)-associated marker Arg-1 in the cerebral cortex 24 h after SAH. Both M(LPS) and M(IL-4) microglia were quantified. n=5 in each group. Values are shown as the mean ± SD. **p < 0.01, versus sham group; #p < 0.05 and ## p < 0.01, versus SAH group; & p < 0.05 and && p < 0.01 versus SAH+ CI-IB-MECA group.