Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 4 pp 4999—5019

HOXB9 enhances the ability of lung cancer cells to penetrate the blood-brain barrier


Figure 7. Graphical summary. HOXB9 promotes migration and invasion of NSCLC cells by inducing EMT, allowing them to break away from the primary bulk tumor and invade the surrounding capillaries. After reaching the cerebral circulation, the cells are arrested at the BBB, where degradation of junctional proteins (TJ and AJ) occurs due to release of MMP9 by tumor cells in a HOXB9-dependent manner. This results in BBB breakdown, tumor cell invasion, and establishment of brain metastasis.