Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 24 pp 26121—26139

Subanesthetic isoflurane abates ROS-activated MAPK/NF-κB signaling to repress ischemia-induced microglia inflammation and brain injury


Figure 4. Sub-anesthetic ISO post-conditioning reduces OGD-enhanced inflammatory factors in microglial cells in co-cultures. Co-cultures with or without 3 h-OGD stimulation were exposed to RA with or without 0.7% ISO for 30 min. And co-cultures were continuously cultured under normal conditions for 6 or 12 h after OGD treatment. Then, microglial cells were harvested for next analyses. (AE) qPCR analysis of (A) TNF-α, (B) IL-1β, (C) IL-6, (D) IL-8 and (E) MCP-1 mRNA levels at 6 h after OGD treatment. (FJ) ELISA analysis of (F) TNF-α, (G) IL-1β, (H) IL-6, (I) IL-8 and (J) MCP-1 protein levels at 12 h after OGD treatment. Representative data are from three independent experiments and expressed as mean ± SD. Statistical significance: *P < 0.05 vs. Ctrl groups; #P < 0.05 vs. OGD + RA group. Ctrl: control; ISO: isoflurane; OGD: oxygen and glucose deprivation; RA: room air.