Figure 9. Sub-anesthetic ISO post-conditioning increases the survival of OGD-treated neurons in co-cultures. Co-cultures with or without 3 h-OGD stimulation were exposed to RA with or without 0.7% ISO for 30 min. After co-cultures were continuously cultured for 24 h under normal conditions, neurons were collected for further analyses. (A) MTT assay shows neuronal viability. (B) Flow cytometry analysis of neuronal apoptosis. (C) The nucleosomal fragmentation assay for assessing neuron apoptosis. (D) Quantitative analysis of caspase-3 activity. (E) Flow cytometry analysis of JC-1 stained neurons. Representative data are from three independent experiments and expressed as mean ± SD. Statistical significance: *P < 0.05 vs. Ctrl groups; #P < 0.05 vs. OGD + RA group. Ctrl: control; ISO: isoflurane; OGD: oxygen and glucose deprivation; RA: room air.