Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 24 pp 26121—26139

Subanesthetic isoflurane abates ROS-activated MAPK/NF-κB signaling to repress ischemia-induced microglia inflammation and brain injury

Figure 9. Sub-anesthetic ISO post-conditioning increases the survival of OGD-treated neurons in co-cultures. Co-cultures with or without 3 h-OGD stimulation were exposed to RA with or without 0.7% ISO for 30 min. After co-cultures were continuously cultured for 24 h under normal conditions, neurons were collected for further analyses. (A) MTT assay shows neuronal viability. (B) Flow cytometry analysis of neuronal apoptosis. (C) The nucleosomal fragmentation assay for assessing neuron apoptosis. (D) Quantitative analysis of caspase-3 activity. (E) Flow cytometry analysis of JC-1 stained neurons. Representative data are from three independent experiments and expressed as mean ± SD. Statistical significance: *P < 0.05 vs. Ctrl groups; #P < 0.05 vs. OGD + RA group. Ctrl: control; ISO: isoflurane; OGD: oxygen and glucose deprivation; RA: room air.