Figure 5. ADSCs protect neurons from MI by activating the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway. (A) Analysis of TGF-β1 secretion in culture supernatants from cells subjected to MI and treated with SB431542 (SB). (B) Detection of TGF-β1, PLOD2, MAP2, NSE, GFAP, and GAP43 mRNA levels by qRT-PCR. (C, D) Western blot analysis of TGF-β1, PLOD2, P-Smad3, Smad2/3, and neuronal/glial markers in rat cortical neurons. Results presented as mean ± SD and evaluated with one-way ANOVA. *P<0.05, compared to normal and MI/ADSC groups; #P<0.05, compared to MI/ADSC and control groups.