Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 4 pp 5020—5033

Toxic effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on corneas in vitro and in vivo

TiO2 NPs activated Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway in corneal endothelial cells. The mRNA level of Nrf2 (A), HO1 (B), NQO1 (C), γ-GCS (D), Keap1 (E) in primary corneal endothelial cells with indicated treatment. (F) Protein level of Keap1 and Nrf2 in primary corneal endothelial cells with indicated treatment. *P**P***P

Figure 4. TiO2 NPs activated Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway in corneal endothelial cells. The mRNA level of Nrf2 (A), HO1 (B), NQO1 (C), γ-GCS (D), Keap1 (E) in primary corneal endothelial cells with indicated treatment. (F) Protein level of Keap1 and Nrf2 in primary corneal endothelial cells with indicated treatment. *P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001.