COVID-19 Review Volume 12, Issue 24 pp 26263—26278

Immunometabolism at the cornerstone of inflammaging, immunosenescence, and autoimmunity in COVID-19

Figure 3. Immunometabolism-Mediated therapies targeting T-cell dysfunction in COVID-19. Onset of cytokine storm as treatment opportunity via rapamycin, metformin, and dimethyl fumarate. Inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin, AMPK by metformin and Nrf2 activation by dimethyl fumarate may restore CD8+ T-cell functionality and improve antiviral response and patient outcome.