Figure 10. Intracerebroventricular indoxyl sulfate administration caused behavioral alterations. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with normal saline or GNF351 (8 mg/kg) for 30 minutes. The mice were then intracerebroventricularly injected with normal saline or indoxyl sulfate (5 μg per mouse) for 3 weeks. The time spent in the center zone (A) and numbers of center zone entries (B) were evaluated by the Open Field Test. The FST was conducted for a period of 5 min and the duration of immobility was recorded (C). The TST was performed for a period of 6 min and the duration of immobility was recorded (D). In the Morris Water Maze Test, the escape time (E) in the acquisition phase was recorded from 1st to 3rd days. After training for 3 consecutive days, the escape time (F) required to reach the hidden platform was recorded. The serum samples were collected and subjected to the measurement of serotonin (G), BDNF (H), and corticosterone (I) levels. Total RNAs were extracted from the isolated prefrontal cortical tissues and subjected to quantitative RT-PCR for the measurement of IL-1β mRNA level (J). *p < 0.05 vs. control saline group, and #p < 0.05 vs. indoxyl sulfate saline (IS) group, n = 8.