Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 5 pp 6681—6701

Indoxyl sulfate caused behavioral abnormality and neurodegeneration in mice with unilateral nephrectomy

Indoxyl sulfate induced neuroinflammation. Unilateral nephrectomized mice were intraperitoneally injected with indoxyl sulfate (IS, 0 and 100 mg/kg) and the indoxyl sulfate-injected mice were orally given with AST-120 (0 and 400 mg/kg) for 7 weeks. (A) The serum samples were collected and subjected to the measurement of IL-1β level. (B) Total RNAs were extracted from the isolated prefrontal cortical tissues and subjected to quantitative RT-PCR for the measurement of IL-1β mRNA level. Proteins were extracted from the isolated prefrontal cortical tissues and subjected to Western blot with the indicated antibodies. Representative blots (C) and the quantitative data (D) are shown. Nuclear proteins were extracted from the isolated prefrontal cortical tissues and subjected to Western blot with the indicated antibodies. Representative blots (E) and the quantitative data (F) are shown. Nuclear proteins were extracted from the isolated prefrontal cortical tissues and subjected to EMSA for the measurement of NF- κB and AP-1 DNA binding activity. Representative blots (G) and the quantitative data (H) are shown. *p

Figure 9. Indoxyl sulfate induced neuroinflammation. Unilateral nephrectomized mice were intraperitoneally injected with indoxyl sulfate (IS, 0 and 100 mg/kg) and the indoxyl sulfate-injected mice were orally given with AST-120 (0 and 400 mg/kg) for 7 weeks. (A) The serum samples were collected and subjected to the measurement of IL-1β level. (B) Total RNAs were extracted from the isolated prefrontal cortical tissues and subjected to quantitative RT-PCR for the measurement of IL-1β mRNA level. Proteins were extracted from the isolated prefrontal cortical tissues and subjected to Western blot with the indicated antibodies. Representative blots (C) and the quantitative data (D) are shown. Nuclear proteins were extracted from the isolated prefrontal cortical tissues and subjected to Western blot with the indicated antibodies. Representative blots (E) and the quantitative data (F) are shown. Nuclear proteins were extracted from the isolated prefrontal cortical tissues and subjected to EMSA for the measurement of NF- κB and AP-1 DNA binding activity. Representative blots (G) and the quantitative data (H) are shown. *p < 0.05 vs. control group, and #p < 0.05 vs. indoxyl sulfate alone (IS) group, n = 8.