Figure 8. Astrocyte-derived EVs loaded with NKILA promote brain recovery in TBI mice in vivo. Mice were randomly classified into sham-operated mice, TBI mice, TBI mice treated with EVs or NKILA-enriched EVs (15 mice/group). (A) the mNSS determined before TBI and on the 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after TBI. (B) the levels of NKILA and NLRX1 in mouse left cerebral cortex tissue determined with RT-qPCR. (C) the expression of neuron marker MAP2 in PKH26-labeled EVs assayed with immunofluorescence assay (× 200). (D) The loss of neuron cells assessed using Nissl staining (× 200). * p < 0.05 compared with sham-operated mice. # p < 0.05 TBI mice. & p < 0.05 TBI mice treated with EVs. N = 15. All data were measurement data and expressed as mean ± standard deviation. One-way ANOVA was used for comparison among multiple groups, followed by Tukey’s post-hoc test. Comparisons between time-based measurements on neuronal function were determined with repeated measures ANOVA.