Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 6 pp 8916—8928

Protective effects of ginseng stem-leaf saponins on D-galactose-induced reproductive injury in male mice

Effects of GSLS on the kinematic parameters of mouse sperm. (A) straight line velocity (VSL); (B) continuous line velocity (VCL), (C) average path velocity (VAP); and (D) amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH). All data are represented as mean ± SEM (n = 6). *p p #p ##p

Figure 4. Effects of GSLS on the kinematic parameters of mouse sperm. (A) straight line velocity (VSL); (B) continuous line velocity (VCL), (C) average path velocity (VAP); and (D) amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH). All data are represented as mean ± SEM (n = 6). *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 compared to the NG; #p < 0.05, ##p < 0.05 compared to the MG. NG: normal group, MG: D-gal model group, GS-L: D-gal + low dosage of GSLS group, GS-H: D-gal + high dosage of GSLS group.