Figure 10. Carminic acid improves AMPKα activation in Fru-treated cells and renal samples. (A) TCMK-1 and HK2 cells were exposed to Fru (5 mM) for 24 h with or without CA (10 and 20 μM). Then, all cells were collected for western blot analysis of p-AMPKα in cells. n = 4 in each group. (B) Western blot results for p-AMPKα in kidney samples of mice from the indicated groups. n = 4 in each group. The results are expressed as the means ± SEM. *P< 0.05 and **P< 0.01 compared with the Ctrl group; +P< 0.05 compared with the Fru group.