Figure 6. Carminic acid ameliorates renal dysfunction in Fru-fed mice. (A) Animal experimental procedure was shown. (B) Body weight of mice. (C) Kidney weight of mice was measured. n = 8 in each group. (D) Blood glucose levels were assessed. (E) Serum insulin levels were measured. (F) OGTT and ITT analysis were performed. n = 8 in each group. (G) Serum TG, TC and LDL contents were determined. n = 8 in each group. (H) RT-qPCR analysis for gene expression of PEPCK, G6PC and FPB1 in kidney samples of mice. n = 4 in each group. (I) RT-qPCR results for genes regulating fatty acid synthesis (SCD1, PPARγ and FAS) and β-oxidation (PPARα and CPT1α) in renal tissues. n = 4 in each group. (J) Serum creatinine contents, urinary albumin and BUN levels were determined. n = 8 in each group. The results are expressed as the means ± SEM. *P< 0.05and **P< 0.01 compared with the Ctrl group; +P< 0.05 compared with the Fru group.