Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 8 pp 11363—11380

Melatonin attenuates smoking-induced atherosclerosis by activating the Nrf2 pathway via NLRP3 inflammasomes in endothelial cells

CSE treatment induced pyroptosis in HAECs. (A) Morphology of HAECs treated with and without CSE imaged using electron microscopy. Autophagosomes, cytoplasmic outflow and cell membrane break indicated by red arrows. (B, C) The protein levels of GSDMD and GSDMD-N were upregulated in HAECs after treatment with CSE, as indicated by western blot results. β-Actin was used as an internal control. **p n = 3).

Figure 1. CSE treatment induced pyroptosis in HAECs. (A) Morphology of HAECs treated with and without CSE imaged using electron microscopy. Autophagosomes, cytoplasmic outflow and cell membrane break indicated by red arrows. (B, C) The protein levels of GSDMD and GSDMD-N were upregulated in HAECs after treatment with CSE, as indicated by western blot results. β-Actin was used as an internal control. **p < 0.01. The data are represented as mean ± SD (n = 3).