Figure 1. Quercetin induces the mitophagy ability in vitro and in vivo. (A) Evaluation of mitophagy in vehicle- and quercetin (0.1 1, 10, 20, 50 and 100 μM)-treated HeLa cells expressing mt-Keima. Ratios indicating relative levels of mitophagy were quantified. (B) Representative images of (A). (C) Transgenic animals expressing the mt-Rosella biosensor in neuronal cells were treated with quercetin and NMN. Relative levels of neuronal mitophagy are expressed as the ratio between pH-sensitive GFP fluorescence intensity and pH-insensitive DsRed fluorescence intensity (n = 35 nematodes per group). (D) Representative images of (C). (E, F) Changes of designated mitophagy proteins in Hela cells with or without quercetin treatment. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. *P < 0.05 compared to the control (ANOVA followed by Dunnett's multiple-comparison post hoc tests). For all nematode experiments, two to three independent experiments were performed.