Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 8 pp 12016—12030

Mendelian randomization as an approach to assess causal effects of inflammatory bowel disease on atrial fibrillation


Figure 5. Conceptual framework for the mendelian randomization analysis of inflammatory bowel disease and risk of atrial fibrillation. (A1) genetic variants are associated with the risk factor; (A2) genetic variants are not associated with any confounder of the association between the risk factor and outcome; and (A3) genetic variants are not associated with the outcome conditional on the risk factors and confounders.