Figure 5. ADA suppressed the expression of M1 markers. The expression of the M1 markers TNFα (A), IL-12 (B), IL-6 (C), IFNγ (D) and IL-1β (E) in the different groups was evaluated by ELISA kits. All values are expressed as the mean ± SEM (n = 6). **p < 0.01 vs. the sham group; ##p < 0.01 vs. the CCH group.