Review Volume 13, Issue 10 pp 14522—14543

Effects of exercise on cellular and tissue aging

Exercise activated pathways in muscle capable of contributing to improved metabolic control in T2D. AMP, adenosine monophosphate; AMPK, AMP- activated protein kinase; ATP, adenosine triphosphate; Ca2+, divalent cation calcium; CaMKs, calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinases; GLUT4, glucose transporter type 4; LKB1, liver kinase B1; PGC-1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma; ROS, reactive oxygen species. Created in BioRender.

Figure 3. Exercise activated pathways in muscle capable of contributing to improved metabolic control in T2D. AMP, adenosine monophosphate; AMPK, AMP- activated protein kinase; ATP, adenosine triphosphate; Ca2+, divalent cation calcium; CaMKs, calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinases; GLUT4, glucose transporter type 4; LKB1, liver kinase B1; PGC-1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma; ROS, reactive oxygen species. Created in BioRender.