Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 11 pp 15078—15099

Mechanistic insights into the anti-depressant effect of emodin: an integrated systems pharmacology study and experimental validation


Figure 8. EMO treatment significantly reduced CUMS induced microglial activation and neuroinflammation. (A) Microglia in the PFC were identified by Iba1 immunohistochemical staining (bar = 10 μm). (B) The solidities of microglia were calculated to evaluate the activation of microglia (n = 3, 8-9 slices/group). Levels of IL-1β (C) and TNF-α (D) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) were detected by ELISA (pg/mg protein, n = 6). The level of SOD activity (E) in the PFC was measured by ELISA (U/mg protein, n = 6). Data were expressed as the means ± SEM. *** p < 0.001 DET+VEH vs CON+VEH. ### p < 0.001 DET+EMO vs DET+VEH.