Figure 3. Oxidative stress induces DNA damage and apoptosis in GCs. (G) H2O2+KGN were harvested at the indicated time points for γ-H2AX staining. Positive cells in each group and the frequency of cells with foci were counted. Scale bar: 10μm. (H) KGN cells transfected with GFP-TRDMT1 (WT, G155V, and E63K mutant) were stimulated with H2O2, and their cell localization was observed. Scale bar: 50μm.Comparison of the nucleus/cytoplasm ratio between the two groups. *P<0.05, **p<0.01, and ***p<0.001. Statistical significance was determined using two-tailed t-tests for two groups and ANOVA for multiple comparisons. All values are means ± SD.