Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 11 pp 15511—15522

Propofol ameliorates renal ischemia/reperfusion injury by enhancing macrophage M2 polarization through PPARγ/STAT3 signaling

Propofol promotes M2 polarization of macrophages in vitro. PMs incubated with Pro or vehicle were kept and under normoxia or exposed to 6-h hypoxia followed by 24-h reoxygenation (H/R). (A–C) ELISA measurements of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 levels in culture supernatants. (D–F) Real-time PCR assessment of iNOS, Arg1, and Mrc1 mRNA expression in cell lysates. (G, H) Representative western blot images and corresponding densitometric analysis of total and phosphorylated STAT 1/3/6 and PPARγ expression in cell lysates. Data were compared to control (Con) and GAPDH was used as loading control. Con: Normoxia+PBS; Pro: Normoxia+Pro; H/R: H/R+PBS. *P

Figure 3. Propofol promotes M2 polarization of macrophages in vitro. PMs incubated with Pro or vehicle were kept and under normoxia or exposed to 6-h hypoxia followed by 24-h reoxygenation (H/R). (AC) ELISA measurements of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 levels in culture supernatants. (DF) Real-time PCR assessment of iNOS, Arg1, and Mrc1 mRNA expression in cell lysates. (G, H) Representative western blot images and corresponding densitometric analysis of total and phosphorylated STAT 1/3/6 and PPARγ expression in cell lysates. Data were compared to control (Con) and GAPDH was used as loading control. Con: Normoxia+PBS; Pro: Normoxia+Pro; H/R: H/R+PBS. *P < 0.05 between the indicated groups.