Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 11 pp 15511—15522

Propofol ameliorates renal ischemia/reperfusion injury by enhancing macrophage M2 polarization through PPARγ/STAT3 signaling

Propofol enhances M2 polarization of macrophages in vitro through the PPARγ/ STAT3 pathway. PMs were transfected with PPARγ-siRNA or a non-silencing control siRNA (NS-siRNA) and preincubated with Pro or vehicle before H/R treatment. (A, B) Representative western blot images and corresponding densitometric analysis of total and phosphorylated PPARγ and STAT 3 expression in cell lysates. Data were compared to control (Con) and GAPDH was used as loading control. (C–E) Real-time PCR analysis of relative iNOS, Arg1, and Mrc1 mRNA levels in cell lysates. Data were normalized against corresponding measurements in non-transfected, non-treated macrophages. (F–H) ELISA measurements of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 contents in culture supernatants. *P

Figure 4. Propofol enhances M2 polarization of macrophages in vitro through the PPARγ/ STAT3 pathway. PMs were transfected with PPARγ-siRNA or a non-silencing control siRNA (NS-siRNA) and preincubated with Pro or vehicle before H/R treatment. (A, B) Representative western blot images and corresponding densitometric analysis of total and phosphorylated PPARγ and STAT 3 expression in cell lysates. Data were compared to control (Con) and GAPDH was used as loading control. (CE) Real-time PCR analysis of relative iNOS, Arg1, and Mrc1 mRNA levels in cell lysates. Data were normalized against corresponding measurements in non-transfected, non-treated macrophages. (FH) ELISA measurements of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 contents in culture supernatants. *P < 0.05 between the indicated groups.