Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 11 pp 15511—15522

Propofol ameliorates renal ischemia/reperfusion injury by enhancing macrophage M2 polarization through PPARγ/STAT3 signaling

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Figure 5.

PPARγ silencing inhibits Pro-mediated renoprotection and M2 polarization of kidney macrophages. Rats were injected with PPARγ-siRNA or a negative control siRNA (NS-siRNA) before rI/R or sham surgery (n = 8/group). Twenty-four hours after reperfusion, kidney injury was determined by assessing (A) serum BUN, (B) SCr, (C) ATN scores, and (D) kidney histopathology via H&E staining (200x magnification; scale bars = 100 μM). (E) Representative images of TUNEL staining of kidney tissues (200x magnification; scale bars = 50 μM). DAPI was used for nuclear staining. (F) Quantification of TUNEL-positive cells in kidney sections. (GJ) Real-time PCR analysis of relative TNF-α, IL-6, CXCL-10, and IL-10 expression levels in kidney samples. (KM) Real-time PCR analysis of relative iNOS, Arg1, and Mrc1 mRNA expression levels in kidney samples. *P < 0.05 between the indicated groups.