Figure 1. Age-induced changes in serum NE and senescence markers in the brainstem. (A) Changes in serum NE levels in young and aged animals measured using a commercial ELISA kit (mean±SE, n=4-6/group). (B) Real-time PCR analysis of gene expression levels of senescence markers p16, p21 and p53 (n=4/group) (C) Representative images of RNA-ISH showing p16-positive cells in the RVLM of the brainstem in young and aged animals. (D) Semi-quantitative analysis measuring the number of p16-positive cells in the RVLM by RNA-ISH. (E) Representative images of SA-β gal staining in the brainstem and (F) Quantification of cells positive for SA-β gal staining in the RVLM of the brainstem. *denotes a significant difference (p < 0.05) from young animals.