Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 11 pp 15620—15637

Formulated Chinese medicine Shaoyao Gancao Tang reduces NLRP1 and NLRP3 in Alzheimer’s disease cell and mouse models for neuroprotection and cognitive improvement

IFN-γ-induced HMC3 activation. (A) Experimental flow chart. After seeding HMC3 for 24 h, IFN-γ (100 ng/ml) was added to cells to induce inflammation. After 24 h, CD68 and HMCII expression in cells as well as NO, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 release in culture medium were assessed. (B) Immunofluorescence examination of IFN-γ-induced HMC3 activation using antibodies against CD68 and HMCII (red). Cell nuclei were counterstained with DAPI (blue). (C) Levels of NO (measured by Griess reagent), TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 (assessed by ELISA) in culture medium (n = 3). P values: comparisons between IFN-γ-activated vs. inactive cells (**: P P t test).

Figure 2. IFN-γ-induced HMC3 activation. (A) Experimental flow chart. After seeding HMC3 for 24 h, IFN-γ (100 ng/ml) was added to cells to induce inflammation. After 24 h, CD68 and HMCII expression in cells as well as NO, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 release in culture medium were assessed. (B) Immunofluorescence examination of IFN-γ-induced HMC3 activation using antibodies against CD68 and HMCII (red). Cell nuclei were counterstained with DAPI (blue). (C) Levels of NO (measured by Griess reagent), TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 (assessed by ELISA) in culture medium (n = 3). P values: comparisons between IFN-γ-activated vs. inactive cells (**: P < 0.01, ***: P < 0.001). (two-tailed Student’s t test).