Research Paper Volume 14, Issue 1 pp 109—142

Kampo formulas alleviate aging-related emotional disturbances and neuroinflammation in male senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 mice


Figure 2. Oral administration of Kampo formulas does not improve circadian rhythm disruption in SAMP8 mice. Time course of locomotor activity of mice aged 7 weeks (A) and 19 weeks (B) in their home cages. The time between 8:00 and 20:00 and between 20:00 and 8:00 represents the diurnal and nocturnal phases, respectively. The cumulative activity during the diurnal and nocturnal phases of mice aged 7 weeks (C) and 19 weeks (D) is shown. Data are shown as the mean ± SEM (n = 4−6). *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001, and ****P < 0.0001 using paired t-test. Abbreviations: KS: kososan; NKS: nobiletin-rich kososan; HJG: hachimijiogan; W: weeks of age.