Figure 3. Distinct efficacy of different Kampo formulas for blocking neuroinflammatory priming in the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice at 19 weeks of age. (A) Representative western blotting images of NLRP3, Arg1, and GAPDH expression. Expression of NLRP3 (B) and Arg1 (C) were normalized based on GAPDH expression. (D) Pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance. Data are shown as the mean ± SEM (n = 5 or 6). *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001, and ****P < 0.0001 using Bonferroni’s post-hoc test. Abbreviations: KS: kososan; NKS: nobiletin-rich kososan; HJG: hachimijiogan; LPS: lipopolysaccharide.