Figure 5. Oral administration of KS and NKS blocks the increase in the level of tau observed in the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice. (A) Representative western blot images of tau and GAPDH expression. (B) Expression of tau was normalized based on GAPDH expression. (C) Expression of Mapt was normalized based on Gapdh expression. Heatmap of differential gene expression related to phosphorylation and splicing of tau (D) and autophagy (E) in the hippocampus of mice. Data are shown as the mean ± SEM (n = 5 or 6). *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, and ***P < 0.001 using Bonferroni’s post-hoc test. Abbreviations: KS: kososan; NKS: nobiletin-rich kososan; HJG: hachimijiogan.