Research Paper Volume 14, Issue 5 pp 2221—2238

Impact of the food grade heat-killed probiotic and postbiotic oral lozenges in oral hygiene


Figure 2. Microbial change (%) in saliva samples. Change (%) in the population of (A) S. mutans, (B) total bacteria, (C) Bifidobacterium, and (D) Lactobacillus in participants’ saliva at 0, 2, and 4 weeks of oral lozenge intake. The oral lozenges contained postbiotics or heat-killed cells. Participants in the control group consumed placebo lozenges without the postbiotic content (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, and ***p < 0.001 compared with the control group; #p < 0.05, ##p < 0.01, and ###p < 0.001 in reference to the values at week 0). Data are presented as medians (n = 25 in each group).