Figure 2. MT improved degenerative changes in the lumbar IVDs with aging. (A) Radiographs showed the sagittal and coronal view of representative L5/L6 vertebrae. (B) DHI was measured on sagittal radiographs with the equation below. (C) Quantification analysis was used for DHI. (D) Histological scores of disc degeneration were analyzed. (E) The tissue sections were stained with HE and Safranin O/Fast Green (bar = 500 and 100 μm). The white arrow indicates severe degenerative phenotypes, the black arrow indicates inner layers buckling inward, and the green arrow shows partial necrosis in the disc. Values are expressed as the mean ± SD (N = 8). Compared with the YCG, ##P < 0.01; compared with the AG, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01. DHI: disc height index, YCG: young control group, AG: aging group, MTG: manual therapy group.