Figure 3. MT modified the redox balance of lumbar IVDs by promoting antioxidant capacity. (A–D) The level of ROS, the activity of superoxide dismutase SOD, and the content of MDA and GSH were detected to assess the effects of MT on oxidative balance. Values are expressed as the mean ± SD (N = 8). Compared with the YCG, ##P < 0.01; compared with the AG, **P < 0.01. ROS: reactive oxide species, SOD: superoxide dismutase, MDA: malondialdehyde, GSH: glutathione, YCG: young control group, AG: aging group, MTG: manual therapy group.