COVID-19 Research Paper Volume 14, Issue 6 pp 2462—2474

Association between social isolation and reduced mental well-being in Swedish older adults during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic: the role of cardiometabolic diseases


Figure 1. Joint effect of social isolation and cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs) on mental well-being during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Odds ratios (95% CIs) of reduced mental well-being, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms from logistic regression models adjusted for baseline age, gender, education, living status, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and pre-pandemic depressive symptoms. Interaction between social isolation status and CMD status on reduced mental well-being: P for multiplicative interaction = 0.208; P for additive interaction = 0.02.