Research Paper Volume 14, Issue 12 pp 4976—4989

Differential impact of glycemic control and comorbid conditions on the neurophysiology underlying task switching in older adults with type 2 diabetes


Figure 1. Task switch paradigm and behavioral switch costs. (A) A fixation cross was presented for 2700 ± 100 ms, followed by a number (possible values: 1–4, 6–9) surrounded by a square or diamond, indicating the rule set for that trial, presented for 2500 ms. For trials with a number within a square, participants had to respond by button press as to whether the number was below (index finger) or above (middle) 5. For trials with a number within a diamond, participants had to answer whether the number was odd (index finger) or even (middle) by button press. Trials were pseudorandomized such that 50% of trials were the same rule set as the previous trial (No Switch) and 50% were a different rule set from the previous trial (Switch). All analyses were relative to the difference between these conditions, or switch costs. (B) Accuracy did not differ by group (not shown), but there was a trend for group differences in behavioral switch costs (t46 = 1.79, p = 0.080), where those with type 2 diabetes and additional comorbidities (shown in green) had longer reaction times relative to those without comorbidities (shown in blue). # denotes 0.050 < p < 0.100.