Research Paper Advance Articles

Cadmium-induced impairment of spermatozoa development by reducing exosomal-MVBs secretion: a novel pathway


Figure 8. Schematic illustration of cadmium-induced more formation of autophagosomes and autolysosome that causes reduction of MVBs pathway through over activation of autophagic pathway, and spermatozoa were deprived of getting the immunological support and protection from exosomal-MVBs secretion, which leads to the destruction of spermatozoa during spermatogenesis.