**Figure 2.** **Short-term retention of everyday spatial memory in aging.** (**A**) Rats received a weak encoding (1 reward, filled circle). One hour later, they were tested in a probe trial with 5 non-rewarded sandwells (open circles). (**B**) The percentage of correct digging was significantly above chance (dashed line; one-sample *t*-test, no prior training, t_{11} = 4.01, *p* = 0.002, attrition of 1 rat; priorly trained, t_{12} = 7.04, *p* < 0.001) after weak encoding in both groups and the group difference was significant (unpaired *t*-test, t_{23} = 2.14, *p* = 0.043). The statistical power of short-term memory in the group without prior training was 0.99 and the Cohen’s d was 1.16. (**C**) Similar to procedures in A except that the start location was changed at the probe test. (**D**) The percentage of correct digging was significantly above chance (dashed line; one-sample *t*-test, t_{11} = 4.86, *p* < 0.001). Data are presented as mean ± SD. ^{*}*p* < 0.05, ^{**}*p* < 0.01, ^{***}*p* < 0.005.