To explore the effects of lncRNA GACAT1/miR-149 molecular axis on the proliferation, apoptosis, migration and autophagy of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells, and to explore its molecular mechanism. The expressions of lncRNA GACAT1 and miR-149 in tissues and cell lines of patients with OSCC were detected by qRT-PCR. Si-control, GACAT1-siRNA, inhibitor NC and miR-149 inhibitors were transfected into OSCC cells separately or in combination with Lipofectamine 2000. The binding sites between lncRNA GACAT1 and miR-149 were predicted using the miRanda website, and the targeting relationship was verified by dual-luciferase assay. The expression of lncRNA XIST and miR-149 was detected by qRT-PCR. CCK-8 assay was used to detect cell activity. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry. Cell migration ability was detected by Transwell assay. The expression of migration and autophagy-related proteins was detected by western blot. LncRNA GACAT1 was highly expressed in cancer tissues and cell lines of OSCC patients (P < 0.01), while miR-149 was low expressed (P < 0.01). LncRNA GACAT1 binds to miR-149 targeting. The down-regulation of lncRNA GACAT1 inhibited the proliferation and migration of OSCC cells and promoted apoptosis and autophagy (P < 0.01). The transfection of miR-149 inhibitor had the opposite effect. Knockdown of lncRNA GACAT1 and transfection with miR-149 inhibitor reversed the effect of GACAT1 silencing on OSCC cells. Inhibition of lncRNA GACAT1 can inhibit the proliferation and migration of OSCC cells, promote apoptosis and autophagy, and the mechanism may be related to the targeting of miR-149.