Research Perspective Volume 3, Issue 11 pp 1063—1077

Metformin and the ATM DNA damage response (DDR): Accelerating the onset of stress-induced senescence to boost protection against cancer


Figure 2. Chronic exposure to metformin activates the DNA damage sensor kinase ATM in poly-morphic, polyploidy [A431] cancer cells that contained giant nuclei and/or multiple varied size nuclei, including micronuclei (A, B). Chronically-treated cells demonstrated a large, spreading and flattening morphology, typical of senescent cells (C).