Figure 6. Molecular chaperones promote longevity downstream of HIF-1 in maa-1–deficient mutants. (A) The expression of two shsp genes is induced by maa-1 deficiency. qPCR analysis of hsp-16.1 and hsp-16.49 in wildtype, maa-1(ok2033), maa-1(ok2033); hif-1(ia4), and maa-1(ok2033); daf-16 (mu86) animals. mRNA levels are expressed relative to those in wildtype animals (t-test: *P<0.05 and **P<0.001 for maa-1(ok2033) and maa-1(ok2033); daf-16 (mu86) vs wildtype) respectively. (B) Downregulation of shsp expression has little effect on the lifespan of wildtype animals (P=0.1024 and P=0.2988 for control vs hsp-16.1 and hsp-16.49, respectively). (C) Downregulation of shsp expression markedly shortens the lifespan of maa-1(ok2033) mutants (P<0.0001 for control vs each RNAi). P values for lifespan analyses were calculated using the log-rank (Mantel-Cox) method. Replicate experiments and additional statistical analysis are shown in Table S1 and S2.