Figure 2. Effect of TPP derivatives on cell viability and intracellular ATP levels in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells: Compound 1. Cell viability and intracellular ATP levels were determined in the same treated samples. Hoechst staining (%) (shown in black bars); ATP levels (%) indicated in white bars. MCF-7 cells were treated for 72h. Data are represented as mean +/- SEM. Note that 2-butene-1,4-bis-TPP depletes ATP levels, relative to cell number. **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; indicates significance, all relative to the control.