Research Paper Volume 10, Issue 2 pp 229—240

Exploiting mitochondrial targeting signal(s), TPP and bis-TPP, for eradicating cancer stem cells (CSCs)

Figure 3. Effect of TPP derivatives on cell viability and intracellular ATP levels in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells: Compounds 2 and 3. Cell viability and intracellular ATP levels were determined in the same treated samples. Hoechst staining (%) (shown in black bars); ATP levels (%) indicated in white bars. MCF-7 cells were treated for 72h. Data are represented as mean +/- SEM. Note that both 2-chlorobenzyl-TPP and 3-methylbenzyl-TPP progressively deplete cellular ATP levels. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; indicates significance, all relative to the control.