Research Paper Volume 10, Issue 7 pp 1649—1665

Sodium fluoride induces splenocyte autophagy via the mammalian targets of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in growing mice

Figure 14. Sodium fluoride induces autophagy in mammalian mice spleen. NaF can induce the splenocyte autophagy by inhibiting the PI3K and mTOR activity, which in turn enhanced ULK1 and Atg13 expression levels, and then increased LC3, Beclin1, Atg16L1, Atg12, Atg5 expression levels, and reduced p62 expression level.