**Figure 13.** **EE effects on lifespan initiated at 18-month of age.** (**A**) Glucose tolerance test after 3-months EE in one cohort. n=10 per group. * *P*<0.05, ** *P*<0.01. Values are means ± SEM. (**B**) Kaplan-Meier survival curves of combined data of 4 cohorts. n=39 for SE, n=40 for EE. Log-rank test *P* value shown in the figure. (**C**) Means of lifespan. Individual value plot of lifespan. Two-sample T test *P* value shown in the figure.