Figure 1. Glucose medium exacerbates S. typhimurium infection and shortens survival. (A) Glucose increases S. typhimurium infection in C. elegans. Animals cultured in the presence and absence of various concentrations of glucose were infected with S. typhimurium at L4 or young adult stage for 2 days. The numbers of infected pathogen were determined by lysing 20 worms and colony forming assay of live S. typhimurium inside the worms. Colony forming unit (CFU) was plotted using Log2. Data from two independent experiments were pooled and plotted. Error Bars stands for standard error of the mean (SEM). P values were obtained by student’s t-test. *, P<0.01, **, P<0.001. (B) Glucose decreases lifespan of infected animals. Lifespan and infection were carried out at 20 ºC. Animals were infected with S. typhimurium at L4 or young adult stage for 2 days then transferred to normal NGM plates. Survival of control and infected animals were recorded every other day. Data were collected from two independent experiments with number of worms >100. See Table S1 for details. (C) Comparison of killing effect in the presence and absence of glucose. Lifespan of animals (n>100) were plotted in Whiskers box. P values were obtained by Log-rank test. ***, P<0.0001.