Editorial Volume 10, Issue 11 pp 3058—3060

The heterogeneity within Alzheimer's disease

Figure 1. Hypothetical interrelation between subtypes of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), neurodegeneration, cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), and cognitive reserve. (1) Higher cognitive reserve; (2) Lower cognitive reserve; (3) Earlier disease onset in minimal atrophy AD (disease onset in the figure refers to first symptoms of dementia, not to first evidence for biomarker abnormality); (4) Later disease onset in typical AD; (5) Similar disease duration at baseline (retrospective) between typical and minimal atrophy AD, and similar cognitive performance at baseline, with typical AD usually showing slightly more impairment; (6) Faster disease progression (prospective) with typical AD reaching severe dementia in shorter time; (7) CAA is more frequent in minimal atrophy AD and may lower the threshold for the amount of AD pathology needed to produce dementia.