Figure 4. mtROS production in B4G12 cells after exposure to 10ng/ml TGF- β 1 for 48 hours. (A-B) Control and TGF-β1–treated B4G12 cells were subjected to MitoSOX Red Indicator staining after 48h of culture. A representative ﬂow cytometric analysis of mtROS was shown in (A) and the values are mean±SD (B). (C) The MitoSOX Red and peroxy orange 1 fluorescence was imaged with a fluorescent microscope. (D) SOD2 protein expression was tested in CE cells upon 10 ng/ml TGF-β1 treatment. *P<0.05, **P<0.01. All the experiments were independently repeated at least three times.