Figure 8. (A-E) Microscopic pathology in L-BMAA–injected vehicle-treated group. Immunostaining showed that hyperphosphorylated (PHF) tau expression was increased in the neurons of the hippocampus and spinal cord anterior horn compared with that in the normal control rats. (B) Enlarged image was inserted to show the positive stained neurons in the vehicle-treated group. (F-J) Caspase-3 expression was increased in the hippocampus after L-BMAA administration as revealed by immunofluorescence staining. (K) C16+Ang-1 and L-serine treatments inhibited the elevated expression of PHF-tau, and the combined treatment showed the most obvious effects. (L) Treatment with C16+Ang-1, L-serine, and especially both obviously reduced the number of caspase-3–positive neurons labeled with red fluorescence. Scale bar = 100 μm (a) p<0.05 vs normal rats; (b) p<0.05 vs vehicle-treated rats; (c) p<0.05 vs. C16+Ang-1–treated rats; (d) p<0.05 vs. L-serine–treated rats.